EXPOSING the FDA and the USDA - Broad Casting here the things that they would prefer us NOT to know about our FOOD & DRUGS & Farming.

Saturday, December 25, 2010

USDA Announces Regulatory Agenda

Among those USDA regulations in the final rule stage include:

- Handling of Animals; Contingency Plans (According to USDA, this action will heighten the awareness of licensees and registrants regarding their responsibilities in animal handling during emergencies or disasters and help ensure a timely and appropriate response should an emergency or disaster occur. The rule adds requirements for contingency planning and training of personnel by research facilities and by dealers, exhibitors, intermediate handlers, and carriers.)

-Performance Standards for the Production of Processed Meat and Poultry Products

- National Dairy Promotion and Research Program

- National Organic Program: Amendments to the National List (Crops, Livestock, and Processing)

- Farm Loan Programs Loan Making Activities

- Conservation Loan Guarantee Program

- Loan Servicing; Farm Loan Programs

Read the full Federal Register report.

Source: USDA

Full article; http://www.porkmag.com/directories.asp?pgID=675&ed_id=10348

Friday, November 12, 2010

New Cases of Humans Catching Pig Virus (H3N2) WI & PA.

INFLUENZA (14): SWINE ORIGIN (TRIPLE REASSORTANT) H3N2 VIRUSES
**************************************************************
A ProMED-mail post

ProMED-mail is a program of the
International Society for Infectious Diseases


Date: Fri 12 Nov 2010
Source: CDC Online Newsroom [edited]



Reports of human infections with swine origin influenza A (H3N2)
----------------------------------------------------------------
The 12 Nov 2010 FluView reports 2 human infections with swine origin
influenza A (H3N2) viruses in the United States. Test samples from 2
patients submitted by Wisconsin and Pennsylvania have been confirmed at the
CDC [Centers for Disease Control and Prevention] as positive for swine
origin triple-reassortant (tr) H3N2 influenza viruses -- viruses that
normally infect pigs. While human infection with swine influenza viruses is
rare, it can occur. This is most likely to occur when people are in close
proximity to infected pigs, such as in pig barns and livestock exhibits
housing pigs at fairs.

Both of the patients with confirmed trH3N2 infection reported in FluView
were in the vicinity of live pigs. Dates of illness onset in the 2 patients
are more than 6 weeks apart and the viruses from the 2 patients have some
genetic differences, confirming that these 2 cases are not linked. Ongoing
investigations in both states have not shown any evidence of community
transmission of these viruses. The most likely scenario at this point is
that these are 2 isolated cases of human infection with swine influenza
viruses that, while very rare, do occur from time to time. Both patients
have fully recovered from their illnesses; however, these 2 cases do
underscore the importance of human and animal surveillance for influenza.

These 2 cases reported in FluView bring the total number of human
infections with swine origin influenza viruses reported to CDC since 2005
to 18. Previously, 3 of these reports had been swine origin A (H3N2)
viruses. The Pennsylvania and Wisconsin cases bring the number of reports
swine origin A (H3N2) infections in humans in the United States to 5. The
viruses identified in Pennsylvania and Wisconsin are similar to viruses
that infected a patient in Iowa in September 2009, a patient in Kansas in
August 2009 and a patient in Minnesota in May 2010.

Swine Influenza (swine flu) is a respiratory disease of pigs caused by type
A influenza viruses that regularly causes outbreaks of influenza in pigs.
Swine flu viruses cause high levels of illness and low death rates in pigs.
Swine influenza viruses may circulate among swine throughout the year, but
most outbreaks occur during the late fall and winter months similar to
outbreaks in humans. There are 4 main influenza type A virus subtypes that
have been isolated in pigs: H1N1, H1N2, H3N2, and H3N1. Most flu viruses
circulating in pigs are referred to as "triple-reassortant" viruses because
these flu viruses contain genes from human, swine and avian influenza viruses.

Most commonly, cases of human infection with swine-origin influenza viruses
occur in people with direct exposure to pigs. The patient in Pennsylvania
lives in an area where live pigs are farmed and the patient in Wisconsin
became sick 2 days after attending a state fair where pigs were exhibited.
It's important to note that swine influenza viruses are not transmitted to
humans by food. You can not get swine influenza from eating pork or pork
products. Eating properly handled and cooked pork and pork products is safe.

In the past, CDC received reports of approximately one human infection with
a swine influenza virus every one to 2 years, but in the past few years,
about 3 cases have been reported per year. Increased reporting of human
infections with swine influenza could be the result of increased influenza
testing capacity and capabilities in public health laboratories.

These trH3N2 viruses are different from the 2009 H1N1 virus that has been
circulating in the United States since late April 2009. They are also
different from human seasonal influenza A (H3N2) viruses that typically
circulate among people during the flu season. Swine trH3N2 viruses commonly
circulate in pigs in North America, but rarely infect humans. These viruses
are different from the swine classical H1N1 or swine trH1N1 influenza
viruses that also circulate in pigs in North America because they have H3N2
surface antigens. Tr H3N2 viruses first emerged in North American swine
herds in the late 1990s. The H3 and N2 genes which 1st emerged in swine flu
viruses originated from human seasonal H3N2 influenza viruses that
circulated globally among humans in the late 1990s.

Although the vast majority of instances of human infection with animal
influenza viruses do not result in human to human transmission, each case
should be fully investigated to be sure that such viruses are not spreading
among humans and to limit further exposure of humans to infected animals if
infected animals are identified. Surveillance for both seasonal and novel
influenza viruses is conducted by the CDC and its state and local health
partners year round.

For more information about swine influenza, see:
.
Weekly US surveillance updates are published in FluView and posted at:
.

--
communicated by:
ProMED-mail Rapporteur Mary Marshall

[There are 4 main influenza type A virus subtypes that have been isolated
in pigs: H1N1, H1N2, H3N2, and H3N1. Most flu viruses circulating in pigs
are referred to as "triple-reassortant" viruses because these flu viruses
contain genes from human, swine, and avian influenza viruses.

Swine triple-reassortant H3N2 influenza viruses commonly circulate in pigs
in North America, but rarely infect humans. The total number of human
infections with swine origin influenza viruses reported to the CDC since
2005 had been 16, and 3 of these reports had been swine origin A (H3N2)
viruses. The Pennsylvania and Wisconsin cases described above bring the
number of reports swine origin A (H3N2) infections in humans in the United
States to 5, and the total of swine origin A influenza A viruses to 18.

The dates of illness onset in the 2 patients are more than 6 weeks apart
and the viruses from the 2 patients have some genetic differences,
confirming that these 2 cases are not linked.

Swine flu viruses cause high levels of illness and low death rates in pigs.
Swine influenza viruses may circulate among swine throughout the year, but
most outbreaks occur during the late fall and winter months similar to
outbreaks in humans.

Transmission of swine (tr) influenza a viruses to humans has been rare,
even in individuals occupationally exposed to pigs. With the exception of
the swine-origin A (H1N1) 2009 pandemic virus human-to-human transmission
has occurred rarely, if at all.

The HealthMap/ProMED-mail interactive map of the United States, showing the
locations of the states of Pennsylvania and Wisconsin, can be accessed at
. - Mod.CP]

[see also:
Influenza (13): WHO update 20101111.4092]

...................cp/ejp/sh



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thereon, are not guaranteed. The reader assumes all risks in
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Friday, November 5, 2010

Bayer (pesticide) to Blame for Honey Bee Die-Off?

Linda Moulton Howe
Science/Environment Reporter and Editor
www.Earthfiles.com
and Investigative Reporter
Premiere Radio Networks


P. O. Box 21843
Albuquerque, New Mexico 87154

TEL: 505-797-7727
FAX: 505-797-7908

e-mail: earthfiles@earthfiles.com
website: www.earthfiles.com

************************************************************************************

> Honey Bee Disappearances Not "Solved" by Virus and Fungi
>
> © 2010 by Linda Moulton Howe
>
>
>
> "Beekeepers there in North Dakota saw so many dead bees ...
> and we sent some samples into a lab in Florida and they found
> Imidacloprid
> in the honey and the bees and the wax. I mean, that pretty much nails it
> down."
>
> - Daniel F. Mayer, Ph.D., Entomologist
>
>
>
>
> In Colony Collapse Disorder, honey bees
> either don't return to the hive or are found dead
> around the honey bee colony (above image).
>
>
>
> Bayer v. Beekeepers
> by Katherine Eban, October 8, 2010
> from Fortune.com: "What a scientist didn't tell The New York Times
> about his study on bee deaths"
>
> As for the Bayer-Bromenshenk connection, in 2003 a group of 13 North
> Dakota beekeepers brought a class-action lawsuit against Bayer, alleging
> that the company's neonicotinoid, Imidacloprid, which had been used in
> nearby fields, was responsible for the loss of more than 60% of their
> hives. "My bees were getting drunk," Chris Charles, a beekeeper in
> Carrington, N.D., and a plaintiff in the lawsuit, told me in 2008. "They
> couldn't walk a white line anymore -- they just hung around outside the
> hive. They couldn't work."
>
> Charles and the other North Dakota beekeepers hired Bromenshenk as an
> expert witness. Bayer did not dispute that Imidacloprid was found among
> the bees and their hives. The company simply argued that the amount had
> not been enough to kill them.
>
> As the North Dakota lawsuit moved forward, an expert witness for the
> beekeepers, Dr. Daniel Mayer, a now retired bee expert from Washington
> State University, traveled to 17 different bee yards in North Dakota and
> observed dead bees and bees in the throes of what looked like
> Imidacloprid poisoning, he told me in 2008. He theorized that after
> foraging in planted fields where the seeds had been treated with
> Imidacloprid, the bees then brought the pesticide back to the hive,
> where it built up in the wax combs.
>
>
>
> October 28, 2010 Hamilton, Montana and Gainesville, Florida - Nearly
> four years ago on February 23, 2007, I produced my first Earthfiles
> report about the alarming disappearance of honey bees [Archived 022307
> Earthfiles
> ].
> Between the Fall of 2006 and spring of 2007, twenty-two American states
> reported honey bee disappearances of 60% to 100% of their bee colonies.
>
> Pennsylvania beekeeper Dave Hackenberg lost 60% of his colonies and told
> me in an interview that he and other beekeepers thought the culprits
> were systemic nicotine-based insecticides getting into crops that
> flower, contaminating the pollen on which honey bees forage. That was
> the first time I heard about new nicotine-based pesticides such as
> Gaucho (another Bayer-registered product name for Imidacloprid) that are
> applied to seeds to work systemically, persisting in plants as the
> stems, leaves, flowers, pollens and nectars grow.
>
> In other words, right from the Fall 2006 beginning of Colony Collapse
> Disorder (CCD), beekeepers suspected nicotine-based insecticides.
>
>
>
> Who makes Imidacloprid/Gaucho?
> Bayer CropScience of Germany.
>
> So, what was behind the October 6, 2010, New York Times headline
> "Scientists and Soldiers Solve A Bee Mystery" ?
>
> The news was a research article that postulated a DNA-based Iridovirus
> combined with a Nosema ceranae fungi were killing honey bees collected
> from Colony Collapse Disorder research. The main scientist is Jerry
> Bromenshenk, Ph.D., owner of Bee Alert Technology, Inc., in Missoula,
> Montana. He collaborated with the U. S. Army Edgewood Chemical
> Biological Center, Aberdeen Proving Ground and others.
>
> But the word "solved" in the New York Times headline puzzled
> other bee scientists who knew that viruses and fungi had already been
> found in large quantities in the guts of dead honey bees back in 2007
> lab investigations. That's when bee researchers concluded the
> viruses and fungi were opportunists taking advantage of damaged honey
> bee immune systems. The unanswered questions were and still are: What
> is suppressing honey bee immune systems so much? And why do so many
> honey bees apparently die in the fields and not return to their hives?
>
> Two days after the New York Times article, Fortune.com followed up on
> October 8, 2010, with another headline: "What a scientist didn't
> tell the New York Times about his study on bee deaths."
>
> The allegation by reporter-writer Katherine Eban was that Dr. Jerry
> Bromenshenk of Bee Alert was funded by Bayer in Germany to look at
> disease. Eban quoted others who implied Bayer's intent is to keep
> scientists from studying its largest-selling insecticide on Earth:
> Imidacloprid.
>
>
>
> What is Imidacloprid?
>
> Imidacloprid is a "Nicotine Acetylcholine receptor
> agonist/antagonist" that lab tests have confirmed will interfere
> with nerve impulse transmissions in insects, including honey bees. That
> means the affected insects die when their body functions won't work.
>
>
>
>
> Source: Bayer CropScience.
> id_se.htm>
>
> Imidacloprid is a systemic insecticide that moves from treated seeds
> into the stems, leaves, flowers, pollen, nectar and fruits of growing
> plants. That means the entire treated crop becomes toxic to many
> insects. Since the first use of Imidacloprid in France in 1994 on
> sunflowers, French beekeepers reported what they called "mad bee
> disease" where bees were trembling, disoriented and died.
>
> By 1999, France banned Imidacloprid/Gaucho from use on sunflowers and
> corn – two Bayer CropScience-produced, nicotine-based insecticides.
> Italy followed with bans as well. But in the last year or two, some bans
> have been rescinded under commercial pressures.
>
> But farmer concerns were not confined to France and Italy. Very
> disturbing in 2003 were reports from North Dakota beekeeper that 60% of
> their honey bee colonies died after Gaucho/Imidacloprid had been applied
> to their canola crops - similar to the French and Italian beekeeper
> complaints. One scientist who followed up to help the North Dakota
> canola farmers was Daniel F. Mayer, Ph.D. Dr. Mayer spent thirty-five
> years working as a research and extension entomologist for Washington
> State University in Pullman, Washington, and is co-author of a 2000 book
> entitled Crop Pollination by Bees. After traveling several times to 17
> different bee yards in North Dakota and seeing dead bees and bees that
> trembled and moved erratically in what looked like Imidacloprid
> poisoning, Dr. Mayer took samples from the canola plants and the damaged
> honey bee colonies, Dr. Mayer found Gaucho/Imidacloprid in flowers,
> pollens, wax, bees, and the "honey supers" used to collect honey
> in commercial beehives - all at surprising levels in the second year
> after the first application of the nicotine-based insecticide.
>
> That's when Dr. Mayer joined thirteen North Dakota beekeepers, led by
> Carrington, North Dakota, beekeeper Chris Charles, in a class action
> lawsuit against Bayer CropScience in Germany. But strangely, the federal
> court judge in Washington, D. C., who watched over three years of
> depositions, testimonies and all, suddenly decided that Dr. Mayer was
> not an "expert" and the case was dismissed. Many wondered who
> Bayer paid off that time.
>
> Interview:
>
> Daniel F. Mayer, Ph.D., Retired Research and Extension Entomologist,
> Washington State University (Pullman, WA), and co-author Crop
> Pollination by Bees, © 2000, Hamilton, Montana: "Beekeepers
> there in North Dakota saw so many dead bees. So I went out there in 2003
> and examined the colonies. I went out there three times to seventeen
> different bee yards and we sent some samples into a lab in Florida. That
> lab found Imidacloprid in the honey and the bees and the wax and the
> honey super. I mean, that pretty much nails it down.
>
> IMIDACLOPRID IS ONE OF THE NICOTINE-BASED PESTICIDES THAT BAYER MAKES.
>
> Right. And Gaucho (another name for an Imidacloprid product) was being
> sold as a seed treatment for canola. And in that part of North Dakota,
> lots of acreage of canola were being treated, so the bees were pretty
> much confined to foraging on Imidacloprid-treated canola.
>
> What our tests showed was that the bees would forage on this (canola)
> crop and then Imidacloprid would build up in the super (honey super)
> – there's honey and pollen still in there.
>
> [ Editor's Note: Wikipedia - Honey supers.
>
>
> Comb honey supers ready to go for a colony.
> Image © 2010 by Honeyflow Farm.
>
> A honey super is a part of a commercial beehive that is used to collect
> honey. The most common variety of honey supers may contain 8-10 frames.
> Western honeybees collect nectar and store the processed nectar in the
> honeycomb of the frames. When the honeycomb is full, the bees will cap
> the comb with beeswax. Beekeepers will take the full honey supers and
> extract the honey. Honey supers are removed in the fall when the honey
> is extracted and before the hive is winterized.]
>
> Then the second year, when you put that (honey) super back in the honey
> bee colony, there was still enough Imidacloprid in there to affect the
> colony and cause colony decline and the colony would not make any honey
> and it would die. They were losing up to 60% of the colony – the
> beekeepers there in North Dakota.
>
> AND THAT WAS 2003.
>
> Right.
>
> [ Editor's Note: 2003 was nearly four years before the first
> Pennsylvania beekeeper, Dave Hackenberg, reported to the Univ. of
> Pennsylvania that in the fall-winter of 2006-2007, he lost up to 60% of
> his bees in the mysterious syndrome now called Colony Collapse Disorder,
> CCD. ]
>
> IF I UNDERSTAND CORRECTLY, WHAT YOU WERE FINDING IS THAT THERE WAS A
> YEAR-TO-YEAR BUILD UP OF THE NICOTINE-BASED PESTICIDE SO THAT IT MIGHT
> NOT HAVE HURT THE BEES IN ONE APPLICATION THE FIRST YEAR, BUT THAT IT
> DOES TEND TO BUILD UP AND THIS (Imidacloprid) MIGHT BE WHAT WAS UNDOING
> THE BEES AND CAUSING ALL THE DISAPPEARANCES?
>
> Yes, it was causing it in my mind, my opinion.
>
> WHAT IS THAT RISK TO THE BEES AND PPOLLINATORS? WHAT HAPPENS IN THE
> PRESENCE OF NICOTINE-BASED PESTICIDES?
>
> Well, if the bees get enough, at a certain level it's going to cause
> harm to the individual bee and to the colony, and if enough Imidacloprid
> gets into the colony, it's going to kill the colony.
>
> IMIDACLOPRID CAUSES DISORIENTATION IN THE BEE BRAIN?
>
> Yes.
>
> CAN YOU DESCRIBE WHAT YOU HAVE SEEN WITH YOUR OWN EYES?
>
> A bee that is being affected by such a pesticide – it kind of
> trembles, it flips around, it's acting very abnormally. And it's
> kind of like a drunk twitching and moving around erratically. Sometimes
> it is unable to fly or crawl - like typical symptoms of bee poisoning.
>
> SO IF BEES ARE OUT FORAGING ON CANOLA OR ANOTHER FLOWERING CROP TREATED
> WITH A NICOTINE-BASED PESTICIDE, THE BEES ARE GOING TO INTAKE THAT
> NICOTINE-BASED PESTICIDE THAT WILL CAUSE THE BEES DISORIENTATION TO THE
> POINT THAT THEY PROBABLY CAN'T RETURN TO THE HIVE?
>
> Yeah, there will be some of that and they just die out in the field.
>
>
>
> Federal Judge "Threw Out"
> North Dakota Class Action Lawsuit
>
> SO WHAT HAPPENED NEXT (IN NORTH DAKOTA CLASS ACTION LAWSUIT)?
>
> Eventually there were depositions and all that and the case went to
> court in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and went in front of a judge
> (where) Bayer said I was not a qualified expert. So the judge threw the
> whole thing out saying I was not a qualified expert when it comes to
> pesticides on bees.
>
> BUT YOU ARE AN ENTOMOLOGIST BY PH.D. FOR YEARS AND YOU HAD BEEN WORKING
> IN EXTENSION AND GOING OUT AND STUDYING WHAT WAS HAPPENING TO THE HONEY
> BEES IN NORTH DAKOTA.
>
> And for thirty-five years, I worked on the issue of pesticide toxicity
> to bees. But the federal judge threw it out. And now in 2009, when they
> came up for Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) review, Bayer still
> had not done any tests to see if there was Imidacloprid in the flowers
> after the nicotine-based pesticide seed treatment.
>
>
>
> Original Bayer Gaucho Label Warned
> Some Insects Could Be Harmed "During Bloom"
>
> You know, what is really puzzling to me is on the original label for
> Gaucho, it clearly stated when it first came out that this material is
> good for suppression of Lygus bugs and Cabbage Seedpod Weevil during
> bloom. Now, that proves to me that Bayer knew the insecticide was
> getting into the bloom and honey bees forage on the blooming flowers!
>
>
> Honey bee foraging on yellow, blooming canola flower.
> Image © Nature Amateur Photography.
>
> Later on there was communication from Bayer – `Oh, we don't
> know where this statement came from – it's not true.'
>
> Well, then why did Bayer put it on their label?
>
> I AM GETTING THE DISTINCT IMPRESSION THAT BAYER IS TRYING TO BUY ITS
> INNOCENCE IN COLONY COLLAPSE DISORDER BY FUNDING RESEARCH THAT WILL LOOK
> AT EVERY OTHER POSSIBLE CULPRIT EXCEPT NICOTINE-BASED PESTICIDES.
>
> That's probably a pretty good guess. Bayer is huge! I mean, it's
> all over the world – pesticides, pharmaceuticals, everything! Bayer
> has a lot of money and Imidacloprid has made a lot of money for them and
> so it is in their best interest to do just about anything to keep it on
> the market.
>
> As long as they are using the nicotines, there are going to be problems
> with pollinators when it is applied to a crop where bees are going to
> forage. But if you take Imidacloprid and spray it on pine trees,
> there's going to be no effect on pollinators because there is no
> bloom.
>
> But as long as it is used around blooms, especially as a soil treatment
> or as a seed treatment like Gaucho/Imidacloprid, there's going to be
> problems with killing bees."
>
>
>
> Another Bee Expert Comments About
> NYT Headline Announcing CCD "Solved"
>
> Back to The New York Times's surprising headline about Dr. Jerry
> Bromenshenk of Bee Alert Technology and the U. S. Army "solving"
> Colony Collapse Disorder as a one-two punch by Iridovirus and Nosema
> fungi. I also asked long-time apiary researcher Jerry Hayes for comment.
> Mr. Hayes is Assistant Chief, Bureau of Plant and Apiary Inspection in
> the Apiary Inspection Section of the Florida Department of Agriculture
> in Gainesville, Florida.
>
> Interview:
>
> Jerry Hayes, Asst. Chief, Bureau of Plant and Apiary Inspection, Apiary
> Inspection Section, Division of Plant Industry, Florida Dept. of
> Agriculture, Gainesville, Florida: "Certainly Jerry
> (Bromenshenk)'s research is interesting. Is it the Holy Grail of
> anything? No, it certainly isn't. If you read his paper, he's
> not saying it is the cause of CCD, but it could be a possible marker
> for colony health issues.
>
> DON'T YOU THINK IT IS PECULIAR THAT THE NEW YORK TIMES WOULD HAVE A
> HEADLINE, `SCIENTIST AND SOLDIERS SOLVE A BEE MYSTERY'?
>
> That's the media for you, Linda.
>
> BUT IT IS AS IF DR. BROMENSHENK AND THE NEW YORK TIMES REPORTER JOHNSON
> HAD AGREED TO DO A STORY ABOUT BROMENSHENK AND THE ARMY SOLVING COLONY
> COLLAPSE DISORDER, WHEN IN FACT THAT IS HIGHLY MISLEADING AND THE
> HEADLINE IS WRONG.
>
> I would agree with you.
>
> NOTHING HAS BEEN SOLVED IN COLONY COLLAPSE DISORDER?
>
> No. The only thing that Bromenshenk was pointing out was that he found
> more of this Iridovirus than perhaps other people. It has been found, I
> think, in 2009, but he was putting a correlation together between that
> and Nosema. Viruses and Nosema are markers for colony health problems.
>
> BUT HOW DO WE TRUST ANY CONTRADICTORY REPORTS ANYMORE WHEN BAYER IS
> PAYING SCIENCE TO COME UP WITH OTHER ALTERNATIVES TO EXPLAIN COLONY
> COLLAPSE DISORDER? EVEN DR. BROMENSHENK HIMSELF SAYS THE BIG PROBLEM IS
> THAT NO ONE CAN TRUST WHAT BAYER IS SAYING ANYMORE.
>
> Yeah, I certainly have my concerns about not only Big Government, but
> Big Private Industry and Chemical Companies. We should all be more
> knowledgeable about what we do, how we do it and who is doing it to us?
>
>
>
> Future of Honey Bee Industry?
>
> WHAT IS YOUR BOTTOM LINE RIGHT NOW ABOUT THE FUTURE OF THE HONEY BEE
> INDUSTRY?
>
> I think it's teetering - possibly frightening, but the bigger
> question is: What we can do to mitigate this?
>
> WHAT YOU MEAN IS THAT HONEY BEES AND POLLINATOR HEALTH CONTINUE TO
> WORSEN AND THESE HIGH DECLINES OF 30% TO 35% A YEAR ARE NOT GOING AWAY.
> HONEY BEE AND POLLINATOR HEALTH IS WEAK, SO WHAT THAT BODES FOR THE
> FUTURE IS STILL UNKNOWN?
>
> Yes, is still unknown! And because this is being impacted by lots of
> negative things, we are a big animal and should we be paying attention
> to these things that are happening to a small animal? And what meaning
> does it have for our survivability, sustainability and our culture?
>
> I don't mean that pesticides are not negative influences on honey bees
> or anything else. Dr. Jamie Ellis at the University of Florida has done
> some pesticide work and shows that pesticides do negatively affect the
> gut lining of honey bees. You know, we've talked about this in the
> past, Linda – are honey bees the canary in the coal mine?"
>
>
>
> Humble Bees Faster Problem
> Solvers Than Supercomputers
>
> On October 25, 2010, bee researchers at Queen Mary University of London
> reported that bee brains solve complex problems faster than
> supercomputers. Professors Lars Chittka and Mathieu Lihoreau point out:
> "There is a common perception that smaller brains constrain animals
> to be simple reflex machines. But in nature, bees have to link hundreds
> of flowers in a way that minimizes travel distance, and then reliably
> find their way home. ... such problems keep supercomputers busy for
> days. Studying how bee brains solve such challenging tasks might allow
> us to identify the minimal neural circuitry required for complex problem
> solving."
>
> More Information:
>
>
> ISIS Report September 6, 2008. Click here to ISIS.
>
>
> Emergency Pesticide Ban for Saving the Honeybee
>
> Prof. Joe Cummins' warning against neonicotinoid pesticides in the
> killing of honeybees was dramatically confirmed, resulting in swift
> action on the part of the German Government.
>
> The German Federal Office of Consumer Protection and Food Safety (BVL)
> suspended the registration of eight neonicotinoid pesticide seed
> treatment products used in oilseed rape and sweetcorn. a few weeks after
> honeybee keepers in the southern state of Baden W├╝rttemberg reported
> a wave of honeybee deaths linked to one of the pesticides, clothianidin.
>
> 'It's a real bee emergency,' said Manfred Hderer, President of the
> German Professional Beekeepers' Association to The Guardian. '50% to 60%
> of the bees have died on average and some beekeepers have lost all their
> hives.' The incriminating evidence was so convincing that a press
> release from the Julius Kuehn Institute (JKI), the German federal
> agricultural research agency, stated: 'It can unequivocally be concluded
> that a poisoning of the bees is due to the rub-off of the pesticide
> ingredient clothianidin from the corn seeds.' Tests on dead bees showed
> that 99% had a build-up of clothianidin sold in Europe under the trade
> name Poncho and produced by Bayer CropScience, approved for use in
> Germany in 2004, and with some restrictions in the United States in
> 2003.
>
>
>
> Press Release, September 19, 2008
> Coalition Against Bayer Dangers (Germany)
> C lick here for CBG Press Release.
>
>
> Italy bans Pesticides linked to Bee Devastation
>
> Neonicotinoids now suspended in four European countries
>
> The Italian government banned the use of several neonicotinoid
> pesticides that are blamed for the deaths of millions of honeybees. The
> Ministero del Lavoro della Salute e delle Politiche Sociali issued an
> immediate suspension of the seed treatment products clothianidin
> (Poncho), imidacloprid (Gaucho), fipronil and thiamethoxam used in
> rapeseed oil, sunflowers and sweetcorn.
>
> Italy followed Germany and Slovenia which banned sales of clothianidin
> and imidacloprid in May. In France imidacloprid has been banned on
> sunflowers already since 1999. In 2003 the substance was also banned as
> a sweetcorn treatment. Bayer´s application for clothianidin was
> rejected by French authorities.
>
> The two substances, imidacloprid and clothianidin, are produced by the
> German company Bayer CropScience and generated more than $1 billion in
> 2007. Imidacloprid is Bayer´s best-selling pesticide.
>
>
>
> For further reports about honey bee Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD),
> please see other Earthfiles reports below in the Earthfiles Archive
> .
>
> • 07/28/2010 — Bee Expert Says Cell Phones Are Not Cause of
> Honey Bee Collapse
> • 05/05/2010 — Updated: U. S. Honey Bee Industry Struggles with
> 34% Colonies Loss
> • 02/18/2010 — U. S. Honey Bee Deaths Increase Again
> • 11/20/2009 — Red List of Earth Life Facing Extinction Keeps
> Growing
> • 03/30/2009 — European Honey Bee Decline Continues While
> Aggressive Africanized Honey Bees Attack in Southern U. S.
> • 09/26/2008 — NRDC Sues EPA for Honey Bee Lab Data and EPA
> Approves Another Bee-Killing Pesticide
> • 08/31/2008 — Honey Bees Not Healthy in U. S. or U. K.
> • 04/10/2008 — Honey Bee Collapse Now Worse on West Coast
> • 10/13/2007 — Now Bumblebees Are Disappearing, Too.
> • 09/26/2007 — North American Honey Bees Still Weak
> • 09/07/2007 — Honey Bee DNA Study Finds Australian Virus in
> Colony Collapse Disorder
> • 06/28/2007 — Hackenberg Apiary, Pennsylvania - 75-80% Honey
> Bee Loss in 2007. What Happens If Colony Collapse Disorder Returns?
> • 05/04/2007 — Environmental Emergency Updates: Part 1 -
> Spreading Honey Bee Disappearances - Nosema ceranae Not the Answer?
> • 04/06/2007 — Collapse of Honey Bees in U. S., Canada and 9
> European Countries
> • 03/17/2007 — Honey Bee Disappearances Continue: Could
> Pesticides Play A Role?
> • 02/23/2007 — Part 1: Earth Life Threats - Alarming
> Disappearance of Honey Bees
>
> Websites:
>
> Fortune.com, October 8, 2010: "What a scientist didn't tell The New
> York Times about his study on bee deaths," by Katherine Eban:
> http://money.cnn.com/2010/10/08/news/honey_bees_ny_times.fortune/index.h\tmhtm
>
>
> CBD Press release: Imidacloprid: Long-term risks undervalued, August
> 2, 2010:
> http://www.cbgnetwork.org/3490.html

>
> Coalition Against Bayer Dangers (CBD) Press Releases, 1990 - 2010:
> http://www.cbgnetwork.org/269.html
>
> Understanding the Science: the Impact of Imidacloprid On Bees:
> http://pierreterre.com/page/impact-imidacloprid-bees
>
> Metro Atlanta Beekeepers Association about Imidacloprid:
> http://www.metroatlantabeekeepers.org/registration_of_imidacloprid_fro.h\tm
>
> "Mysterious Honey Bee Disorder Buzzes into Court," August 19, 2008:
> http://www.ens-newswire.com/ens/aug2008/2008-08-19-092.asp
>
> "How to Reduce Bee Poisoning from Pesticides" © 1999 by D. F. Mayer,
> Ph.D.: http://cru.cahe.wsu.edu/CEPublications/pnw0518/pnw0518.pdf

> Credits
> Copyright © 1999 - 2010 by Linda Moulton Howe.
> All Rights Reserved.
> www.earthfiles.com

> earthfiles@...

Monday, November 1, 2010

PROGRESSIVE MULTIFOCAL LEUKOENCEPHALOPATHY, MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS

BioGen's "Tysabri" drug to blame

***********************************************
A ProMED-mail post

ProMED-mail is a program of the
International Society for Infectious Diseases



Date: Fri 29 Oct 2010
Source: Nasdaq, Dow Jones Newswires [edited]



Biogen Idec Inc. (BIIB) disclosed 2 more cases of a rare brain
infection in multiple sclerosis patients on Tysabri, which it sells
with Elan Corp. (ELN), bringing the total number of cases to 70 as of
Fri 1 Oct 2010. [Tysabri (Natalizumab) is a humanized monoclonal
antibody against the cellular adhesion molecule Eo4-integrin.
Natalizumab is used in the treatment of multiple sclerosis and
Crohn's disease. Further information can be obtained from the
Natalizumab (Tysabri) Fact Sheet:
. - Mod.CP].

The Weston, Mass., biotech company reported that there have been no
additional deaths among patients that have developed the infection --
known as progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, or PML -- a
number that stands at 14.

Sales of Tysabri are important to the future of both Elan and Biogen.
The drug is considered a highly effective therapy for multiple
sclerosis, but its growth has been slower than originally hoped due
to concerns about the risk of PML that led to the drug's temporary
withdrawal beginning in 2005.

The multiple sclerosis market is getting increasingly competitive,
something that Wall Street believes could put some pressure on
Tysabri. Novartis AG's ( NVS) Gilenya, the 1st oral therapy for the
disease, was recently approved, and numerous other therapies are in
development.

Biogen is scheduled to report its 3rd-quarter result on 26 Oct 2010,
when it will update patient numbers.

The overall global PML rate is about 0.91 per 1000 patients, the
company said, which falls within the one-in-1000 rate previously seen
in clinical trials and implied on the drug's label.

As of 30 Jun 2010, 52 700 patients were using the drug around the
world. In total, about 71 400 patients have used the drug since its
launch. Of the total PML cases, 29 were in the U.S., 37 were in the
European Union and 4 were in other areas.

The number of cases is important, because if the infection rate
climbs too high, the drug's sales growth may drop. Regulators have
said that they watch the cases but have concluded that the benefits
of the medicine to MS patients outweigh the risks.

The risk of the infection increases with the number of monthly
infusions that a patient receives. The incidence rate appears to drop
after 30 months of use, but Biogen views the drop as inconclusive,
because there aren't enough patients to have confidence in that finding.

The most recent data update translates to a rate of 1.42 cases per
1000 for patients on the drug for a year or longer, but rises to 1.87
per 1000 for those on the drug for 2 years or longer.

Looked at another way, the rate is about 1.44 cases per 1000 patients
on the drug for between 2-3 years. The incidence is about 0.38 case
per 1000 patients in those using it for 1-2 years, and it is
essentially nonexistent in patients using it for less than a year.

[Byline: Thomas Gryta]

--
Communicated by:
T J Allen

[Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is caused by the
reactivation of a common virus in the central nervous system of
immune-compromised individuals. JC Polyomavirus (often called JC
virus, JC being the initial of the 1st PML patient [and not to be
confused with Jamestown Canyon virus, an orthobunyavirus - Mod.DK])
is carried by a majority of people and is harmless except among those
with lowered immune defenses. The disease occurs, rarely, in organ
transplant patients, people undergoing chronic corticosteroid or
immunosuppressive therapy, and individuals with cancer, such as
Hodgkin's disease, lymphoma, and sarcoidosis. PML is most common
among individuals with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS).
Studies estimate that prior to effective antiretroviral therapy, as
many as 5 percent of people with AIDS eventually developed PML. For
them, the disease was most often rapidly fatal. As described above,
PML is being observed now in a minority of patients undergoing
prolonged therapy for multiple sclerosis.

The symptoms of PML are the result of an infection that may cause the
loss of white matter (which is made up of myelin, a substance the
surrounds and protects nerve fibers) in multiple areas of the brain.
Without the protection of myelin, nerve signals can't travel
successfully from the brain to the rest of the body.

Typical symptoms associated with PML are diverse, since they are
related to the location and amount of damage in the brain, and evolve
over the course of several days to several weeks. The most prominent
symptoms are clumsiness; progressive weakness; and visual, speech,
and sometimes, personality changes. The progression of deficits leads
to life-threatening disability and death over weeks to months.

A positive diagnosis of PML can be made on brain biopsy, or by
combining observation of a progressive course of the disease,
consistent white matter lesions visible on a magnetic resonance image
(MRI) scan, and the detection of the JC virus in spinal fluid. For
further information concerning PML, see: NINDS Progressive Multifocal
Leukoencephalopathy Information Page:
.

JC polyomavirus is a human virus with a circular double-stranded DNA
genome that is genetically similar to another human virus, BK
polyomavirus virus, and to the well known laboratory virus, Simian
virus 40 (SV40). JC polyomavirus was discovered in 1971 and named
after the initials of a patient with progressive multifocal
leukoencephalopathy. The virus causes PML and other diseases normally
only in cases of immunodeficiency, such as in AIDS or during
treatment with drugs intended to induce a state of immunosuppression
(e.g. organ transplant patients). The above report reaffirms that
there is risk of activation of latent JC polyomavirus infection by
prolonged treatment with Tysabri in the treatment of multiple
sclerosis. This poses a unwelcome dilemma for both multiple sclerosis
patients, the regulatory authorities and the pharmaceutical industry. - Mod.CP]

[see also:
1998
----
Simian viruses, potential for human infection (04) 19980414.0684]
..................................................cp/msp/dk

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information, and of any statements or opinions based
thereon, are not guaranteed. The reader assumes all risks in
using information posted or archived by ProMED-mail. ISID
and its associated service providers shall not be held
responsible for errors or omissions or held liable for any
damages incurred as a result of use or reliance upon posted
or archived material.
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Wednesday, October 27, 2010

POLIOMYELITIS, VACCINE DERIVED - INDIA: (TAMIL NADU)

***********************************************
A ProMED-mail post

ProMED-mail is a program of the
International Society for Infectious Diseases


[1]
Date: 26 Oct 2010
Source: Deccan Chronicle [edited]



Even as the country celebrated a startling fall in wild polio cases
in 2010 on [24 Oct 2010] -- polio eradication day -- a new, rare
strain of the virus, one of the 3 cases of which was reported in
Tamil Nadu this year [2010], has the medical community worried.

A 9-year-old girl from Tirupattur, in Vellore district, who had taken
the oral polio vaccine (OPV) as an infant, developed paralysis.
Doctors diagnosed her with vaccine-derived polio virus (VDPV),
type-2, which mutates from the weakened live virus found in the OPV.
As many as 21 cases of VDPV were detected last year [2009].

"This child from Tamil Nadu had a weak immune system, and hence
developed VDPV. If OPV is given to a child who is immunodeficient,
the body will not be able to clear the virus for months, and even
years," says Dr Vipin Vashishtha, convener, polio eradication
committee of the Indian Academy of Paediatricians.

The only way to prevent VDPV is to replace the oral polio vaccination
with the inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) that comprises dead viruses.
"Several developed countries in the world have shifted to IPV," he says.

However, there is no reason to press the panic button in Tamil Nadu,
which has a track record for being polio-free since 2005. "Both
children and adults in the girl's village were tested for the
contagion and found to be negative. We followed the case for 3 months
and found no cause for alarm," said an official associated with the
national polio surveillance project.

There is also no rationale to shift to IPV at present, when the
country is yet to eradicate type-1 and type-3 of the wild polio
virus, says Dr P. Ramachandran, director of the institute for child
health in Egmore. The need of the hour was to monitor the stray cases
of VDPV closely, he says.

--
Communicated by:
HealthMap Alerts via ProMED-mail


******
[2] cVDPV - WHO data
Date: 12 Oct 2010
Source: Polio eradication initiative website [edited]



Circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus (cVDPV) 2000 - 2010 (as of 12 Oct 2010)

Country: Type: 2000 / 2001 / 2002 / 2003 / 2004 / 2005 / 2006 / 2007
/ 2008 / 2009 / 2010 / 1st case / last case
Nigeria: VDPV 2: - / - / - / - / - / 1 / 21 / 88 / 63 / 153 / 16 / 2
Jul 2005 / 26 Aug 2010
DR Congo: VDPV 2: - / - / - / - / - / - / - / - / 14 / 4 / 8 / 22 Mar
2008 / 13 Aug 2010
Afghanistan: VDPV 2: - / - / - / - / - / - / - / - / - / - / 3 / 10
Jun 2010 / 2 Jul 2010
Niger***: VDPV 2: - / - / - / - / - / - / 2 / - / - / - / 1 / 28 May
2006 / 1 Jun 2010
Ethiopia: VDPV 3: - / - / - / - / - / - / - / - / - / 1 / 5 / 27 Apr
2009 / 17 May 2010
India: VDPV 2: - / - / - / - / - / - / - / - / - / 15 / 1 / 14 Jun
2009 / 18 Jan 2010
Somalia: VDPV 2: - / - / - / - / - / - / - / - / 1 / 4 / - / 29 Jun
2008 / 24 Dec 2009
Guinea***: VDPV 2: - / - / - / - / - / - / - / - / - / 1 / - / [6 May
2009] / 6 May 2009
Ethiopia: VDPV 2: - / - / - / - / - / - / - / - / 3 / 1 / - / 4 Oct
2008 / 16 Feb 2009
Myanmar: VDPV 1: - / - / - / - / - / - / 1 / 4 / - / - / - / 9 Apr
2006 / 6 Dec 2007
Cambodia: VDPV 3: - / - / - / - / - / 1 / 1 / - / - / - / - / 26 Nov
2005 / 15 Jan 2006
Indonesia: VDPV 1: - / - / - / - / - / 46 / - / - / - / - / - / 9 Jun
2005 / 28 Oct 2005
Madagascar**: VDPV 2: - / 1 / 4 / - / - / 3 / - / - / - / - / - / NA
/ 13 Jul 2005
China: VDPV 1: - / - / - / - / 2 / - / - / - / - / - / - / 13 Jun
2004 / 11 Nov 2004
Philippines: VDPV 1: - / 3 / - / - / - / - / - / - / - / - / - / 15
Mar 2001 / 26 Jul 2001
DOR/Haiti: VDPV 1: 12/ 9 / - / - / - / - / - / - / - / - / - / 12 Jul
2000 / 12 Jul 2001

** Madagascar 2 different outbreaks (2001/2002 and 2005)
*** Niger 2006, Niger 2010 and Guinea 2009 cVDPVs are linked to the
Nigeria outbreak

[A map with the locations of the VDPV cases confirmed during the last
6 months can be found at the above given URL link. - Mod.MPP]

--
Communicated by:
ProMED-mail


[The above newswire serves as a reminder of the challenges associated
with the use of the oral polio vaccine (OPV) in areas where there has
been interruption of WPV transmission. If the newswire is providing
adequate, correct information, the involved case is an immune
deficient child who has had a known chronic infection with the
vaccine virus following receipt of the OPV in early childhood. If
this is the case, at the time of infection, this child was living in
an area with WPV circulation and the child's risk of infection with a
WPV far outweighed the child's risk from the OPV. During the
following 8-9 years, this situation has changed, and Tamil Nadu has
been polio free. Historically, there have been concerns about these
chronically infected individuals serving as sources for cVDPV in
areas where vaccination coverages are suboptimal. It awaits to be
seen whether there will be more cases associated with this particular
virus or whether it will remain an isolated case in an !
immunodeficient individual.

Unfortunately, cVDPVs have been associated with outbreaks of
paralytic disease in Egypt, Niger, DR Congo, Nigeria, Hispanola, the
Philippines, Indonesia, Romania, China, Jamaica and Madagascar (see
references below and the table presented in [2] above). Note that in
the situation where disease eradication is the target, the definition
of an outbreak is a single case. With respect to polio, we know that
for each paralytic case, there are between 50 and 1000 others who are
infected but do not have paralytic disease. This figure is the figure
cited routinely for WPV, but we do not have an estimate of the ration
of paralytic to non-paralytic infections with respect to cVDPV. In a
recent article in NEJM, Jenkins et al (see ref. 13 below) concluded
that "the attack rate and severity of disease associated with the
recent cVDPV identified in Nigeria are similar to those associated
with WPV." (The authors estimated average annual clinical attack
rates associated with infections with WP!
V-1 (6.8 with 95 percent [confidence intervals] CI 5.9 to 7.7), cVDPV
2 (2.7 with 95 percent CI 1.9 to 3.6), WPV 3 ( 4.0 with 95 percent CI
3.4 to 4.7).

As the end game of polio eradication draws near and there are fewer
cases of polio caused by wild poliovirus (WPV), there is a shift in
the proportion of paralytic cases identified that are associated with
vaccine derived polioviruses (VDPVs), and more countries have been
identifying outbreaks associated with the circulation of these VDPVs.
In the 2005 WHO document giving a framework for national policy
makers in OPV-using countries for cessation of OPV use after polio
eradication is declared, there is a quote from the Geneva 21-22 Sep
2004 meeting of the Advisory Committee on Poliomyelitis Eradication
(ACPE) that is relevant here: "After eradication of wild poliovirus,
continued use of oral polio vaccine (OPV) would compromise the goal
of a polio-free world." See
.

Unfortunately, many countries have seen decreases in their polio
vaccination coverages as they get further and further away from
having identified circulating WPV in their country, and the National
Immunization Days (NIDs), where extensive social mobilization efforts
were conducted leading to high vaccination coverages at the time,
become events of historical significance. This seems to be the
fertile background for the occurrence of outbreaks of paralytic polio
associated with cVDPV's, where there are significant pockets of
inadequately immunized individuals into which these reverted viruses
find environments for significant transmission (see refs 3, 8,10, 11).

To further complicate the situation, we have arrived at a time where
we truly live in a global village, and microbial organisms can (and
do) travel from one part of the world, where there may be high
vaccination coverages, to another part of the world, where there are
significant pockets of inadequately immunized individuals, in hours
rather than weeks as in the past (See ref. 2 - the VDPV involved in
this community was found to be older than the infected infant,
suggesting it had come from another country. MMWR Dispatch.
Poliovirus Infections in Four Unvaccinated Children -- Minnesota,
August-October 2005. 14 Oct 2005; 54
.). So, while these
immune compromised hosts who are chronic shedders of VDPVs may live
for many years, the viruses they are shedding may enter healthy hosts
who are en route back to areas where vaccination coverages are suboptimal.

References:
1: Jackson ST, Mullings AM, Booth TF, MacDonald L, Henry SO, Khan CA,
McLaughlin PD. Molecular analysis and implications of neurovirulent
circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus in Jamaica. A case report and
review of literature. West Indian Med J. 2008 Nov;57(5):511-4.

2: Alexander JP, Ehresmann K, Seward J, Wax G, Harriman K, Fuller S,
Cebelinski EA, Chen Q, Jorba J, Kew OM, Pallansch MA, Oberste MS,
Schleiss M, Davis JP, Warshawsky B, Squires S, Hull HF;
Vaccine-Derived Poliovirus Investigations Group. Transmission of
imported vaccine-derived poliovirus in an undervaccinated community
in Minnesota. J Infect Dis. 2009 Feb 1;199(3):391-7.

3: Rakoto-Andrianarivelo M, Gumede N, Jegouic S, Balanant J,
Andriamamonjy SN, Rabemanantsoa S, Birmingham M, Randriamanalina B,
Nkolomoni L, Venter M, Schoub BD, Delpeyroux F, Reynes JM.
Reemergence of recombinant vaccine-derived poliovirus outbreak in
Madagascar. J Infect Dis. 2008 May 15;197(10):1427-35.

4: Estivariz CF, Watkins MA, Handoko D, Rusipah R, Deshpande J, Rana
BJ, Irawan E, Widhiastuti D, Pallansch MA, Thapa A, Imari S. A large
vaccine-derived poliovirus outbreak on Madura Island--Indonesia,
2005. J Infect Dis. 2008 Feb 1;197(3):347-54.

5: Vaccine-derived poliomyelitis in Nigeria. Lancet. 2007 Oct
20;370(9596):1394.

6: Combiescu M, Guillot S, Persu A, Baicus A, Pitigoi D, Balanant J,
Oprisan G, Crainic R, Delpeyroux F, Aubert-Combiescu A. Circulation
of a type 1 recombinant vaccine-derived poliovirus strain in a
limited area in Romania. Arch Virol. 2007;152(4):727-38. Epub 2007 Jan 3.

7: Liang X, Zhang Y, Xu W, Wen N, Zuo S, Lee LA, Yu J. An outbreak of
poliomyelitis caused by type 1 vaccine-derived poliovirus in China. J
Infect Dis. 2006 Sep 1;194(5):545-51. Epub 2006 Jul 26.

8: Shimizu H, Thorley B, Paladin FJ, Brussen KA, Stambos V, Yuen L,
Utama A, Tano Y, Arita M, Yoshida H, Yoneyama T, Benegas A, Roesel S,
Pallansch M, Kew O, Miyamura T. Circulation of type 1 vaccine-derived
poliovirus in the Philippines in 2001. J Virol. 2004 Dec;78(24):13512-21.

9: Rousset D, Rakoto-Andrianarivelo M, Razafindratsimandresy R,
Randriamanalina B, Guillot S, Balanant J, Mauclere P, Delpeyroux F.
Recombinant vaccine-derived poliovirus in Madagascar. Emerg Infect
Dis. 2003 Jul;9(7):885-7.

10: Yang CF, Naguib T, Yang SJ, Nasr E, Jorba J, Ahmed N, Campagnoli
R, van der Avoort H, Shimizu H, Yoneyama T, Miyamura T, Pallansch M,
Kew O. Circulation of endemic type 2 vaccine-derived poliovirus in
Egypt from 1983 to 1993. J Virol. 2003 Aug;77(15):8366-77.

11: Kew O, Morris-Glasgow V, Landaverde M, Burns C, Shaw J, Garib Z,
Andre J, Blackman E, Freeman CJ, Jorba J, Sutter R, Tambini G,
Venczel L, Pedreira C, Laender F, Shimizu H, Yoneyama T, Miyamura T,
van Der Avoort H, Oberste MS, Kilpatrick D, Cochi S, Pallansch M, de
Quadros C. Outbreak of poliomyelitis in Hispaniola associated with
circulating type 1 vaccine-derived poliovirus. Science. 2002 Apr
12;296(5566):356-9. Epub 2002 Mar 14.

12: Yan D, Li L, Zhu S, Zhang Y, An J, Wang D, Wen N, Jorba J, Liu W,
Zhong G, Huang L, Kew O, Liang X, Xu W. Emergence and localized
circulation of a vaccine-derived poliovirus in an isolated mountain
community in Guangxi, China. J Clin Microbiol. 2010
Sep;48(9):3274-80. Epub 2010 Jul 14.

13. Jenkins HE, Aylward RB, Gasasira A, Donnelly CA, Mwanza M,
Corander J, Garnier S, Chauvin C, Abanida E, Pate MA, Adu F, Baba M,
Grassly NC. Implications of a circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus
in Nigeria. N Engl J Med. 2010 Jun 24;362(25):2360-9. Erratum in: N
Engl J Med. 2010 Sep 23;363(13):1290. (Full article available at:
). - Mod.MPP]

[see also:
Polioviruses, vaccine-derived - Finland 20100514.1567
2009
----
Polioviruses, vaccine-derived - worldwide: 2008-2009 20090922.3333
2007
----
Poliomyelitis, vaccine-derived strains - worldwide 20071012.3350
2006
----
Poliomyelitis, vaccine associated - Taiwan: susp 20060808.2226
Poliomyelitis, vaccine associated, 2005 - USA ex Costa Rica 20060202.0334
2005
----
Poliovirus isolation, vaccine strain - USA (02) 20051015.3003
Poliovirus isolation, vaccine strain - USA 20051014.2996
Poliovirus isolation, vaccine strain - USA (MN): RFI 20051002.2884
Poliomyelitis, vaccine derived - Madagascar: RFI 20050717.2043
2002
----
Poliomyelitis, vaccine-derived - Madagascar 20020719.4809
Poliomyelitis - Dominican Republic & Haiti 20020331.3848
Poliovirus, inventory of stocks - USA 20021228.6146
Poliovirus, silent carrier - Europe 20020725.4858
Poliovirus, chemical synthesis 20020713.4749
2001
----
Poliomyelitis, vaccine-derived - Philippines: 2001 20011013.2506
Poliomyelitis - Dominican Republic & Haiti 20011005.2415
Polio, circulation of vaccine-derived virus 20010129.0205
2000
----
Poliomyelitis - Dominican Rep.: control measures 20001218.2212
Poliomyelitis - Dominican Republic & Haiti: update 20001208.2149
Poliomyelitis - Dominican Republic & Haiti: ALERT 20001202.2098
1995
----
Latent poliovirus (10) 19950314.0129
Latent poliovirus in AIDS patient 19950307.0110
Latent poliovirus in AIDS patient 19950306.0105]
........................................sb/mpp/msp/dk

*##########################################################*
************************************************************
ProMED-mail makes every effort to verify the reports that
are posted, but the accuracy and completeness of the
information, and of any statements or opinions based
thereon, are not guaranteed. The reader assumes all risks in
using information posted or archived by ProMED-mail. ISID
and its associated service providers shall not be held
responsible for errors or omissions or held liable for any
damages incurred as a result of use or reliance upon posted
or archived material.
************************************************************
Donate to ProMED-mail. Details available at:

************************************************************
Visit ProMED-mail's web site at .
Send all items for posting to: promed@promedmail.org (NOT to
an individual moderator). If you do not give your full name
name and affiliation, it may not be posted. You may unsub-
scribe at .
For assistance from a human being, send mail to:
.

Tuesday, October 5, 2010

A Win for Whistle Blowers

by Ralph Nader

Why would Pfizer, the world’s largest drug company, so mistreat and silence one of their top molecular biologists that a federal jury in Connecticut awarded her $1.37 million in damages last week?The unraveling answer promises to tear open the curtain covering hazards confronting tens of thousands of scientists and assistants in corporate and university labs doing genetic engineering work with viruses and bacteria.



Becky McClain’s lawsuit against Pfizer claimed that the company’s sloppiness in 2002-03 exposed her to an engineered form of the lentivirus, a virus related to one that could lead to immune deficiencies. Pfizer denied any connection between its lab practices and Ms. McClain’s recurring paralysis and other illnesses.Back and forth over three years came the scientist’s claims and Pfizer’s denials during which she had to leave her job amidst the increasing retaliatory behavior of her ten-year employer.



Pfizer is known for playing hardball and violating laws. Last year it had to pay the Justice Department one of the largest fines – half civil, half criminal – for illegal promotion of its drugs for unapproved uses. The fine — $2.4 billion – avoided criminal charges and prosecution, either of the company or officials, and became just another cost of doing business.



Just last week, soon after buying Wyeth Labs for $68 billion, Pfizer’s CEO, Jeffrey B. Kindler, told a reporter for The New York Times that his company has “invented too few drugs and left its reputation in disrepair after two criminal cases.”



That record does not diminish Pfizer’s advantage over its imperiled lab workers, which is built on the absence of any available risk assessments, the very nature of possible latent, silent violence, and the cruel refusal to give afflicted employees their own exposure records on the grounds that they are company trade secrets.



Pfizer offered Ms. McClain a paltry sum with a gag order, which she promptly refused. She wanted her freedom of speech and her whistle-blowing rights under federal law. Her lawsuit was filed in 2006 in Hartford.



By dismissing the third count, which might be appealed, in her complaint alleging Pfizer’s wanton misconduct, U.S. District Judge Vanessa L. Bryant ruled that the plaintiff did not have available the evidence of causality and it was a worker’s compensation matter anyway. Herein started the chicken-egg problem. How could Ms. McClain obtain the evidence in order to prove her case when Pfizer said it was proprietary and secret?



The Council for Responsible Genetics (CRG), started by Harvard and MIT scientists, does not believe laboratory exposure records of workers should be trade secrets. Life, health and remedial rights should trump any such alleged, bizarre property right.



Becky McClain has already exhausted any remedies or assistance from the woeful Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). This agency has been without any regulations or disclosure requirements about biohazards in laboratories. This inertness might change with the appointment of David Michaels to head OSHA, which should bring the agency closer to its mission of preventing or diminishing tens of thousands of fatalities and injuries each year.



Mr. Michaels told the Times that “new biological materials, nanomaterials, there are many things where we don’t have adequate information, and we think workers need to have protection.” He indicated that OSHA will take another look at the McClain case.



Both Jeremy Gruber, president of CRG, and Steve Zeltzer, chair of the California Coalition for Workers Memorial Day, believe the McClain case will lead to broader scrutiny of biologic laboratories, where research is expanding rapidly with heavy federal funding.



It is well known that workers in these labs are inhibited from speaking out, either inside or outside their workplace, for fear of losing their jobs. OSHA has long known that companies in old and new industries often do not come close to fully reporting cases of their injuries and sickness either to their insurers or to state or federal job safety agencies. Some have been found to keep two sets of books.



The Bureau of Labor Statistics data are not at all comprehensive. Under-reporting can hide half or three-fourths of the actual traumatic injuries.



Mr. Zeltzer has denounced what he calls “the failure of top company officials to even report to OSHA and other government agencies that many workers were getting sick numerous times in their laboratories although this is required by the law.” He called on the US Attorney in Hartford to begin a criminal investigation. (see workersmemorialday.org)



As for Becky McClain, this is just the end of the beginning. She says she has lost her career, her health and her health insurance. But she recognizes her case is in the vanguard of many other cases and worker protests to come before enforceable and openly accessible standards and practices become the way of doing business for these labs.



For when it comes to developing materials that are inherently latent, subvisible forms of silent violence, business as usual can become cruel and unusual punishment for innocent, defenseless scientists, lab technicians and other workers.



Such is the weighty responsibility of David Michaels and the new managers of the long moribund, underfunded OSHA in the coming months.

Saturday, September 4, 2010

INFLUENZA PANDEMIC (H1N1) (65): SWEDEN, FINLAND, VACCINE REACTION

********************************************************

A ProMED-mail post



ProMED-mail is a program of the

International Society for Infectious Diseases





Date: Fri 3 Sep 2010

Source: Web Wire [edited]







GSK [GlaxoSmithKline] initially became aware of possible cases of

narcolepsy following vaccination with the adjuvanted H1N1 pandemic

vaccine Pandemrix through adverse event reports received by the

Swedish Medical Products Agency, and subsequently via media reports in Finland.



Information on the individual cases remains limited at present, but

GSK is conducting its own investigation in an effort to gather as

much additional data as possible regarding the reported cases, and is

working closely with key regulatory authorities, including the

European Medicines Agency (EMA).



GSK has also proactively contacted the regulatory authorities in

other countries where Pandemrix was used extensively. The cases

reported as of 1500h GMT on 2 Sep 2010 have been primarily, but not

exclusively, in Finland and Sweden, with a small number of additional

cases reported in France. Media coverage has suggested small numbers

of cases in Norway and Germany, but as of today GSK has received no

reports from these countries.



To date, more than 30 million doses of Pandemrix have been

administered throughout Europe, with the most recent EMA

Pharmacovigilance Report (19 Aug 2010) concluding that the

benefit-risk profile of the 3 centrally-approved H1N1 vaccines,

including Pandemrix, continues to be positive.



GSK's adjuvanted H1N1 pandemic vaccine, Arepanrix, manufactured in

Quebec, was used extensively in Canada, with approximately 16 million

doses administered. There are no reports of narcolepsy in Arepanrix

recipients to date. However, given the background incidence of

narcolepsy we cannot rule out the possibility of a small number of

cases being reported in the future.



Narcolepsy is a chronic sleep disorder characterised by overwhelming

daytime drowsiness and sudden sleep onset. The precise cause of

narcolepsy is unknown, but there is growing evidence for either a

genetic or environmental basis to the condition.



Global experience with previous large-scale immunisation programmes

has shown that it is likely that a certain level of adverse events

will be reported. The adverse events that are reported may be the

result of underlying conditions, or new conditions that occur in

temporal association with the vaccination, and some events may be

related to the vaccine.



Having reviewed the currently available data and information

regarding the reported cases of narcolepsy, which continues to remain

limited, as well as GSK's own safety database, the company has

concluded that the currently available information is insufficient to

assess the likelihood of a causal relationship between Pandemrix and

narcolepsy.



--

Communicated by:

HealthMap Alerts via ProMED-mail





[This report does not provide any statistical information about the

numbers of individuals who suffered narcolepsy nor the number of

individuals vaccinated with H1N1 pandemic vaccine Pandemrix in Sweden

and Finland. Interpretation of these adverse reactions is complicated

by the absence of similar reported adverse reactions to the vaccine

elsewhere in Europe, with more than 30 million doses applied Europe-wide.



The 28 Oct 2009 edition of the Digital Journal

() reported an

unconfirmed source saying Swedish news sources reported at least 350

adverse reactions and 2 deaths to the vaccine but indicated that the

Swedish Institute for Infectious Disease Control denied a link

between the adverse reactions and the vaccine. Narcolepsy was not

mentioned as one of the adverse reactions.



More recently, a 27 Aug 2010 report from Reuters

() stated that

the European Medicines Agency had been asked by the European

Commission to conduct the review after a number of narcolepsy cases

were reported, to determine if there was a causal relationship

between the vaccine and narcolepsy. The vaccine contains the adjuvant

squalene which is a hydrocarbon and a triterpene, and is a part of

the synthesis of cholesterol, steroid hormones, and vitamin D in the

human body. Squalene is used in cosmetics, and more recently as an

immunologic adjuvant in vaccines. Its possible involvement in the

narcolepsy cases in not mentioned. - Mods.MPP,TY]



[see also:

Influenza pandemic (H1N1) (63): WHO update 112 20100807.2680

Influenza pandemic (H1N1) (61): seasonal strain replacement 200920100805.2648

Influenza pandemic (H1N1) (50): WHO update 108 20100710.2311

Influenza pandemic (H1N1) (40): WHO update 104 20100612.1970

Influenza pandemic (H1N1) (30): WHO update 20100417.1250

...................mpp/dk/ty/ejp/dk



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Sunday, August 15, 2010

WHO Advisors Linked to H1N1 "Pandemic" Vaccines

The W.H.O. has finally released its list of advisors that influenced its decision to declare a stage six pandemic, and it turns out that several of them have strong financial ties to the very same vaccine companies that received a windfall of profits from the swine flu pandemic.
Check out the details of these conflicts of interest here;
http://www.naturalnews.com/029441_vaccine_manufacturers_advisors.html

Saturday, August 14, 2010

War Over Raw Milk

What the FDA and the USDA IS NOT telling US is that there is a Bovine TB epidemic throughout our Nation and one way it is spread is through contaminated unpasturized milk; http://articles.mercola.com/sites/articles/archive/2010/08/14/the-war-over-raw-milk-heats-up.aspx
If they would only be HONEST with the people maybe they would understand why the war on unpasturized milk is necessary at this time.

Thursday, August 12, 2010

INFLUENZA PANDEMIC (H1N1) (64): WHO, PANDEMIC OVER

**************************************************
A ProMED-mail post

ProMED-mail is a program of the
International Society for Infectious Diseases


Date: Tue 10 Aug 2010
Source: CIDRAP (Center for Infectious Disease Research & Policy) News [edited]



WHO says H1N1 pandemic is over
------------------------------
The head of the World Health Organization (WHO) today [10 Aug 2010]
declared the H1N1 influenza pandemic over, saying worldwide flu activity
has returned to typical seasonal patterns and many people have immunity to
the virus.

"The world is no longer in phase 6 of influenza pandemic alert," said WHO
director-general Margaret Chan in a press briefing from Hong Kong. "We are
now moving into the post-pandemic period. The H1N1 virus has largely run
its course." But she cautioned that the virus has not gone away and bears
continued watching, commenting, "We expect the H1N1 virus to take on the
behavior of a seasonal influenza virus and continue to circulate for some
years to come."

WHO's Emergency Committee met earlier today [10 Aug 2010] and recommended
that the agency move to the post-pandemic phase, Chan said, adding that she
fully supports the step. The declaration comes almost exactly 14 months
after WHO moved to a full phase 6 pandemic alert on 11 Jun 2009, and about
1.5 months after US health officials called off their public health
emergency declaration on 23 Jun 2010. Many had expected WHO to take the
step months ago, but the Emergency Committee said in June 2010 and again in
July that it was waiting for more information on the Southern Hemisphere's
flu season.

Considerable H1N1 activity has been reported recently in India, New
Zealand, and a few other places, with 942 new cases confirmed in India last
week [week of 2 Aug 2010]. But the current global picture is one of fairly
typical seasonal flu activity, Chan said. "Globally, the levels and
patterns of H1N1 transmission now being seen differ significantly from what
was observed during the pandemic," she said in a prepared statement.
"Out-of-season outbreaks are no longer being reported in either the
Northern or Southern Hemisphere. Influenza outbreaks, including those
primarily caused by the H1N1 virus, show an intensity similar to that seen
during seasonal epidemics.

"During the pandemic, the H1N1 virus crowded out other influenza viruses to
become the dominant virus. This is no longer the case. Many countries are
reporting a mix of influenza viruses, again as is typically seen during
seasonal epidemics." Chan added that recent studies show that 20 per cent
to 40 per cent of populations in some areas gained some immunity to the
H1N1 virus through infection. Further, "Many countries report good
vaccination coverage, especially in high-risk groups, and this coverage
further increases community-wide immunity," she said.

The WHO move is not expected to have a big impact on public health measures
in the United States, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)
said today [10 Aug 2010]. In an emailed statement, CDC said the only impact
of the WHO step is that CDC will stop sending weekly reports of flu
activity to WHO and the Pan American Health Organization [PAHO], in accord
with the International Health Regulations. "There are no changes for the
United States in terms of CDC's recommendations for the upcoming influenza
season, and the United States is already proceeding with the understanding
that the 2009 H1N1 virus is now part of seasonal influenza circulation,"
the agency said. The trivalent flu vaccine for the upcoming flu season
includes the pandemic H1N1 virus along with H3N2 and influenza B strains,
the statement noted.

Chan, answering a reporter's question at the briefing, said, "I feel both
[tired and happy], because this has been a long year of hard work, not just
by colleagues in WHO, but by public health officials worldwide. We need to
continue our vigilance and not be complacent." Looking forward, she said,
"It is likely that the virus will continue to cause serious disease in
younger age groups, at least in the immediate post-pandemic period. Groups
identified during the pandemic as at higher risk of severe or fatal illness
will probably remain at heightened risk, though hopefully the number of
such cases will diminish." She added that a small percentage of people
infected during the pandemic, including young and healthy people, developed
a form of severe viral pneumonia that is not usually seen during seasonal
epidemics. "It is not known whether this pattern will change during the
post-pandemic period, further emphasizing the need for vigilance," she said.

Chan reflected that the world was helped by "pure good luck" in this
pandemic: "The virus did not mutate during the pandemic to a more lethal
form. Widespread resistance to oseltamivir did not develop. The vaccine
proved to be a good match with circulating viruses and showed an excellent
safety profile."

Some critics, particularly in Europe, have accused WHO of exaggerating the
pandemic threat, with some arguing that the agency was improperly
influenced by profit-hungry pharmaceutical companies. As she has
previously, Chan today defended WHO's record, but also acknowledged that it
has learned some lessons from the episode, particularly concerning
communication and flexibility.

Margaret Chan's statement can be viewed at
.

[byline: Robert Roos]

--
communicated by:
ProMED-mail


[Presumably this strain of influenza A (H1N1) will no longer be designated
'influenza pandemic (H1N1) virus'? We trust that it is appropriate now to
cut this thread. - Mod.CP]

[see also:
Influenza pandemic (H1N1) (63): WHO update 112 20100807.2680
Influenza pandemic (H1N1) (62): human adaptation 20100806.2671
Influenza pandemic (H1N1) (61): seasonal strain replacement 200920100805.2648
Influenza pandemic (H1N1) (60): New Zealand (WA) 20100804.2632
Influenza pandemic (H1N1) (50): WHO update 108 20100710.2311
Influenza pandemic (H1N1) (40): WHO update 104 20100612.1970
Influenza pandemic (H1N1) (30): WHO update 20100417.1250
Influenza pandemic (H1N1) (20): China, update 20100303.0702
Influenza pandemic (H1N1) (10): PAHO update 20100121.0240
Influenza pandemic (H1N1) (01): China, 2009 20100105.0040]

.................cp/mj/sh



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thereon, are not guaranteed. The reader assumes all risks in
using information posted or archived by ProMED-mail. ISID
and its associated service providers shall not be held
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or archived material.
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Saturday, August 7, 2010

NON-DIOXIN-LIKE PCB's IN FOOD AND FEED - EUROPE: SURVEILLANCE

*************************************************************
A ProMED-mail post

ProMED-mail is a program of the
International Society for Infectious Diseases


Date: Wed, 4 Aug 2010
Source: European Food Safety Authority, EFSA Journal 2010; 8(7):1701
[abridged, edited]



Results of the monitoring of non dioxin-like PCBs in food and feed
------------------------------------------------------------------
Abstract
--------
Non dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (NDL-PCBs) are persistent
organic chemicals that accumulate in the environment and humans and
are associated with a broad spectrum of health effects. Processing
and distribution of PCBs has been prohibited in almost all industrial
countries since the late 1980s but they still can be released into
the environment from electrical appliances, building paint and
sealants and waste sites that contain PCBs.

In 2002, the European Commission prescribed a list of actions to be
taken to reduce the presence of dioxins and PCBs in food and feed and
Member States were recommended to monitor the situation. A total of
12 563 food and feed samples collected in the period 1995 - 2008 from
18 EU Member States, Iceland and Norway were retained for a detailed
analysis of the occurrence of the 6 indicator NDL-PCBs (# 28, 52,
101, 138, 153, and 180). Overall, 18.8 percent of the results for
single congeners were below the limit of quantification (LOQ) but
their distribution varied highly between food and feed groups.
PCB-153 and PCB-138 were the most commonly detected congeners.

In food, the highest mean contamination level was observed in fish
and fish derived products followed by eggs, milk and their products,
and meat and meat products from terrestrial animals. The lowest
contamination was observed in foods of plant origin. A similar
pattern was observed in feed where high contamination was reported in
feed containing fish derived products and comparatively very low
levels in feed of plant or mineral origin. The sum of the 6 NDL-PCBs
was on average close to 5 times higher than the sum of the 12
dioxin-like PCBs. This relationship varied across food groups and is
presumably related to the origin of samples and the contamination
source. Country-specific clustering has been observed in several food
and feed groups.

--
Communicated by:
ProMED-mail


[PCB's have been known to penetrate skin and latex gloves. PCB's are
persistent and do not easily degrade. Health effects from contact or
ingestion cover most of the systems of the body, including skin
rashes and break outs, liver, thyroid, and stomach problems or organ failure.

Many areas in Europe and the America's have high concentrations in
the environment.

It is probably a late, but proactive move to try to control PCB's in
food. One has to wonder why this move was not made 20 years ago. - Mod.TG]

[see also:
2003
----
PCB contamination, salmon - Multicountry: background 20030803.1904
PCB contamination, salmon - Multicountry 20030802.1893
1999
----
Dioxin & PCB contam., food - Belgium: update 19990729.1281
Dioxin & PCB contamination of food - Germany 19990613.1010
Dioxin & PCB contamination of food - Belgium 19990610.0999
PCB toxicity, birds - USA (Wisconsin): website 19990523.0856
PCB toxicity, birds - USA (Wisconsin) 19990515.0798]
....................arn/tg/ejp/mpp

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and its associated service providers shall not be held
responsible for errors or omissions or held liable for any
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or archived material.
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Wednesday, July 14, 2010

EFSA initiates re-evaluation of feed additives

The Bullshit Report: http://worldpoultry.net/news/efsa-initiates-re-evaluation-of-feed-additives-7696.html

14 Jul 2010

The FEEDAP Panel has completed a re-evaluation of the safety and efficacy of Cylactin, a feed additive used in diets for chickens for fattening.
Cylactin is a microbial feed additive based on a strain of lactic acid bacteria (Enterococcus faecium), which has had a history of use with both animals and humans. The initial assessment showed that the strain of lactic acid bacteria used in this product is more resistant to kanamycin than most other strains of Enterococcus faecium. Following a thorough review of the data, including the full genome sequence the Panel concluded that the antimicrobial resistance was not acquired; therefore, the risk that the bacteria might transfer kanamycin resistance to other organisms is not a cause for concern.

The Panel concluded that Cylactin is effective as a feed additive used for chickens for fattening and that there is no evidence that its use results in adverse effects for the target animals, human health or the environment.

The European Food Safety Authority’s FEEDAP Panel is re-evaluating all feed additives currently on the market, authorised under the previous regulatory framework, and in line with current EU legislation on feed additives for use in animal nutrition. The aim of the work is to ensure that all feed additives in Europe are re-assessed following the same, up-to-date guidelines taking into account the newest scientific developments.

EFSA has already received more than 30 feed additive applications for re-evaluation. In addition, the FEEDAP Panel is continuing to assess new additives submitted for authorisation in the EU, or new uses for additives already authorised. To date EFSA has evaluated more than 200 feed additive applications.

The Truth: Not even getting into the cruelty aspect of factory farmed chickens, in feeding antibiotics and growth hormones that promote faster growth and fatter chickens, made to grow so quickley and so obese that oftentimes their legs cant even hold them up, but more on that following this eye-opening report on moden poultry production from the UK;

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eXDPIhwybd4&feature=player_embedded

FDA: Rule to ensure egg safety goes into effect



13 Jul 2010

The US Food and Drug Administration says that as many as 79,000 illnesses and 30 deaths due to consumption of eggs contaminated with the bacterium Salmonella Enteritidis may be avoided each year with new food safety requirements for large-scale egg producers.
The new food safety requirements became effective on 9 July, 2010, through a rule for egg producers having 50,000 or more laying hens – about 80% of production. Among other things, it requires them to adopt preventive measures and to use refrigeration during egg storage and transportation.

Large-scale egg producers that produce shell eggs for human consumption and that do not sell all of their eggs directly to consumers must comply with the refrigeration requirements under the rule; this includes producers whose eggs receive treatments such as pasteurization. Similarly, those who transport or hold shell eggs must also comply with the refrigeration requirements by the same effective date.

Egg-associated illness caused by Salmonella is a serious public health problem. Infected individuals may suffer mild to severe gastrointestinal illness, short-term or chronic arthritis, or even death. Implementing the preventive measures would reduce the number of Salmonella Enteritidis infections from eggs by nearly 60%.

“Preventing harm to consumers is our first priority,” said Margaret A. Hamburg, M.D., commissioner of food and drugs. “Today's action will help prevent thousands of serious illnesses from Salmonella in eggs.”

The rule requires egg producers with fewer than 50,000 but at least 3,000 laying hens whose shell eggs are not processed with a treatment, such as pasteurization, to comply with the regulation as of July 9, 2012.

Producers who sell all their eggs directly to consumers or have less than 3,000 hens are not covered by the rule.
Under the rule, egg producers whose shell eggs are not processed with a treatment, such as pasteurization must:
• Buy chicks and young hens only from suppliers who monitor for Salmonella bacteria
• Establish rodent, pest control, and biosecurity measures to prevent spread of bacteria throughout the farm by people and equipment
• Conduct testing in the poultry house for Salmonella Enteritidis. If the tests find the bacterium, a representative sample of the eggs must be tested over an eight-week time period (four tests at two-week intervals); if any of the four egg tests is positive, the producer must further process the eggs to destroy the bacteria, or divert the eggs to a non-food use
• Clean and disinfect poultry houses that have tested positive for Salmonella Enteritidis
• Refrigerate eggs at 45 degrees F during storage and transportation no later than 36 hours after the eggs are laid (this requirement also applies to egg producers whose eggs receive a treatment, such as pasteurization).

To ensure compliance, egg producers must maintain a written Salmonella Enteritidis prevention plan and records documenting their compliance. Egg producers covered by this rule must also register with the FDA. The FDA will develop guidance and enforcement plans to help egg producers comply with the rule.

The new rule is part of a coordinated strategy between the FDA and the USDA’s Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS). The FDA and the FSIS will continue to work closely together to ensure that egg safety measures are consistent, coordinated, and complementary.


http://worldpoultry.net/news/fda-rule-to-ensure-egg-safety-goes-into-effect-7695.html